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TAJIKISTAN: Who murdered Baptist missionary Sergei Besarab?
It is not yet certain who killed Baptist pastor Sergei Besarab in Isfara, but reliable sources insist to Forum 18 News Service that a previously unknown Islamist group called Bayat was behind it, a group said to be associated with the banned Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and Afghanistan's Taliban. The authorities state they have arrested a group of Bayat members for the murder and other crimes, but some local Muslim politicians have denied to Forum 18 that Bayat exists. Echoing a local newspaper attack on Besarab just before his murder, Isfara's mayor, interviewed by Forum 18, attacked Besarab's missionary work, referring to his past criminal convictions and alleging that the killing was solely drug-related. The mayor produced no evidence for his allegations and Tajikistan's Baptist Church has firmly refuted them, pointing to the spiritual rebirth Besarab underwent when he became a Christian in prison, and his subsequent active growth in faith. The man thought to have carried out the murder, Saidullo Madyerov, is the son of the former imam of Isfara's central mosque. Isfara is one of the most devoutly Muslim regions of Tajikistan.
Besarab was shot dead in the evening of 12 January after unknown intruders burst into the yard of the Baptist church in Isfara armed with automatic weapons. His active missionary work – which included distributing Tajik-language Christian leaflets to residents - had aroused the anger of some local people. Only a week before Besarab was killed, the local newspaper Nasimi Isfara published an anonymous article sharply criticising his missionary work and pointing out that he had four criminal convictions (see F18News 14 January 2004 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=229 ).
On 12 April the secret police arrested 20 people on suspicion of having committed serious criminal offences that incited racial and religious tension, including Besarab's murder and arson attacks on several mosques whose imams were believed by the attackers to demonstrate excessive loyalty to the regime. According to a statement from Tajikistan's general procuracy, the detainees put up armed resistance, and weapons were seized when their homes were searched. Tajikistan's secret police admitted they had no prior knowledge of a Bayat movement.
Some sources claim that Bayat members have nothing to do with the banned Hizb-ut-Tahrir party or the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), both groups which are better known in the region, and that Bayat is also not affiliated to the only legally active Islamic organisation in Tajikistan - the Islamic Revival Party (IRP). Others claim Bayat members were among the local people who fought for the Taliban in Afghanistan, some of whom are now held at the US base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. These sources maintain there may be a link between Bayat and the IMU, whose members have been very active in the neighbouring Fergana valley and also fought for the Taliban.
"The Tajiks got on with Sergei Besarab very well and we didn't have any problems with Muslims," a member of the local Baptist community, Svetlana Drygina, told Forum 18 on 24 May in Isfara, stressing that all the neighbours had come to his funeral. At the same time, she is convinced that Besarab's murder was directed against the local Christian community. "Sergei often drove out of town, travelling to unpopulated areas where it would have been much easier to kill him. But someone wanted Sergei to be killed right in the church."
Naim Sameyev, a people's deputy for Sugd region of northern Tajikistan and a member of the IRP's ruling body, noted that of the six people under arrest suspected of murdering Besarab "unfortunately all of them are respected and very devout people". He told Forum 18 on 22 May in the village of Chorku, 15 kilometres (10 miles) south of Isfara, that one of those being held, Hodi Hatayev, is the village's imam-hatyb. Sameyev also admitted that another of those arrested is a member of his party. "I don't know anything about the other detainees, but I can say with assurance that the member of our party is innocent."
Abdusator Boboyev, the head of the Isfara district branch of the IRP, confirmed that most of those arrested on suspicion of Besarab's murder were devout Muslims. He added that the arrested man who is suspected of being the actual murderer, Saidullo Madyerov, is the son of the former imam of the town's central mosque and one of the most knowledgeable theologians in Isfara. "Thus far it is hard for me to draw any conclusions," he told Forum 18 on 23 May in Isfara. "I can only say that genuine Muslims condemn terrorism."
Both Boboyev and Sameyev were adamant that they had never heard of the Bayat movement and suspected that it had "simply been dreamt up by journalists".
Isfara's mayor Muzasharif Islamuddinov said he did not understand where journalists got their information about the existence in the town of an underground terrorist Bayat organisation. "As far as I know, those suspected of killing Besarab have committed crimes before, and all of them are just criminals," he told Forum 18 in the town on 24 May.
Islamuddinov questioned the genuineness of Besarab's faith, pointing to his four prison terms. "One may well ask why he had decided to engage in missionary work here in Isfara, where there are virtually no Russians." He alleged that he might have been attracted by Isfara's location, equidistant from Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. "This is a very convenient staging post for drug trafficking," he told Forum 18. "Besarab used to deal in drugs before he became a pastor. Isn't it logical to assume he had simply become a rival to some criminal drug barons!?"
The leadership of Tajikistan's Baptist Union denies this allegation, pointing out that although Besarab was a criminal he underwent a spiritual rebirth after his conversion to Christianity in jail. "We conduct services in prisons and indeed it was there that we met Besarab," Rashid Shamsizade, a Baptist pastor from the capital Dushanbe, told Forum 18 in January. "After he got to know the Bible, he became a completely different person - he was indeed born again." After release from prison, Shamsizade recalled, Besarab had become an active church member and was soon sent to Isfara as a missionary.
Radio Liberty's Tajik-language service, which was among the first to mention the Bayat organisation, sticks to its story. "We received information that the Baptist pastor had been murdered by members of the extremist Bayat organisation from a reliable source at the Sugd regional procuracy," Salim Ayubzod, senior broadcaster at the Tajik service, told Forum 18 on 25 May from Prague. "But clearly, the authorities felt it necessary not to announce this information, at least until the investigation was complete."
Isfara district is one of the most devoutly Muslim regions of Tajikistan and the sale of alcohol is banned in several places, local Muslims having occasionally burnt shops selling alcohol. In Chorku, the village where most of the men being held for involvement in Besarab's murder come from, 93 per cent of voters supported the IRP in the 2000 parliamentary elections.
For more background see Forum 18's latest religious freedom survey at
A printer-friendly map of Tajikistan is available at
21 May 2004
TAJIKISTAN: Dushanbe Jews ordered to vacate synagogue by July
As the city authorities in the capital Dushanbe order the local Jewish community to vacate their century-old synagogue by July to clear the site for a new presidential palace, the synagogue's rabbi has pleaded to allow it to remain. "The authorities could meet the Jews half-way and not demolish Tajikistan's only synagogue," Mikhail Abdurakhmanov told Forum 18 News Service. He stressed that the synagogue had been built by believers and that today's remaining Jewish community is too small and poor to rent a new building or build another synagogue. The city's senior religious affairs official told Forum 18 the synagogue is of "no historic value" and that there was no way it could be included in the reconstruction plan "because it would spoil the entire layout of the complex".
16 February 2004
CENTRAL ASIA: State policy towards Muslims in Central Asia
In all Central Asian states easily the largest percentage of the population belongs to nationalities that are historically Muslim, but it is very difficult to state the percentage of devout Muslim believers. Governments are intensely pre-occupied by "political Islam", especially the banned strongly anti-western and antisemitic international Islamic party Hizb-ut-Tahrir. However, there is absolutely no certainty that all Muslims subject to severe governmental repression are Hizb-ut-Tahir members. In Uzbekistan, where there are estimated to be 5,000 political prisoners alleged to be Hizb-ut-Tahir members, mere possession of Hizb-ut-Tahrir literature is punished by at least 10 years' in jail. Also, Muslims' rights have been violated under the pretext of combating Hizb-ut-Tahrir. In southern Kyrgyzstan, for example, teachers have told children not to say daily Muslim prayers - even at home - and banned schoolchildren from coming to lessons wearing the hijab, the headscarf traditionally worn by Muslim women.
11 February 2004
KAZAKHSTAN: Mosques resist pressure to join state-recognised central organisation
Ethnic Uzbek Imams leading mosques in southern Kazakhstan have resisted state pressure to come under the 'Spiritual Administration of Muslims in Kazakhstan', Forum 18 News Service has found. Pressure followed a 2002 attempt to change the law on religious associations, which the Constitutional Council ruled contradicted the constitution. Kazakh officials have frequently privately told Forum 18 that the region is the country's "hotbed of Islamic fundamentalism". However, Kyrgyzstan is the only state in Central Asia where Hizb-ut-Tahrir (which seeks to unite Muslims worldwide under the rule of a Caliphate) is not officially banned, and most Hizb-ut-Tahrir members in South Kazakhstan region are ethnic Kazakhs. Commenting on this ethnic difference, a local NGO told Forum 18 that "Uzbeks in Kazakhstan live much better than they do in Uzbekistan," so they "are not interested in seeking open confrontation with the authorities."