KYRGYZSTAN: Official claims government control of Islam
The Kyrgyz government "controls" 300 students currently studying in Islamic colleges in Egypt and Iran through the muftiate (the official Islamic spiritual leadership), an official has told Forum 18 News Service. Samsabek Zakirov, head of the religious affairs committee for Osh region, also told Forum 18 that "in southern Kyrgyzstan practically all the mosques are registered and are therefore under government control." Zakirov is not satisfied at this level of control and also intends to ensure that travelling Muslim missionaries "only preach with permission from the muftiate," or official Islamic leadership. Kyrgyz law does not require this permission. Local people have told Forum 18 they fear that last month's uprising in Uzbekistan could destabilise the situation in southern Kyrgyzstan and believe the government may tighten its religious policy. But so far there have been "no noticeable significant changes," Sadykjan Kamaluddin, former mufti of Kyrgyzstan, told Forum 18.
Zakirov reported that efforts have been stepped up to bring under government control Muslim missionaries who travel through villages in the region. "The muftiate has set up a daawa [missionary] department, which issues daawaists with a special document if these people really understand Islam," he told Forum 18. "We are going to be more careful in making sure that all daawaists only preach with permission from the muftiate." Kyrgyz law does not require this sort of permission.
Zakirov particularly stressed the authorities' great concern about Muslim missionaries. "The majority of them belong to Tabligh, although they refuse to admit it" and commented that the authorities think the movement reached Kyrgyzstan directly from Pakistan.
The Tabligh or Tabligh Jama'at movement (literally, a society for spreading faith) is an Islamic missionary movement which until now has been able to operate freely in Kyrgyzstan.
In three trials last year in Uzbekistan's section of the Fergana [Farghona] valley, which also covers Kyrgyzstan, eleven members of the Tabligh movement were given jail terms. Outside Uzbekistan it has been linked with radical Islamists and in east Africa with Al-Qaeda. But Uzbek Tabligh members told Forum 18 that the Tabligh emphatically distances itself from politics and is entirely focused on religious missionary work, insisting that they had heard nothing about military training in some foreign affiliates (see F18News 3 December 2004 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=468).
The Kyrgyz authorities estimate that about 300 people have gone to Pakistan to study in medrassehs through their own initiative, thus escaping government control, Zakirov said. "Tabligh members are among them." Although the Tabligh movement is not banned in Kyrgyzstan, Zakirov insists it has to register with the government. Kyrgyz law does not require this.
Local people told Forum 18 they fear potential destabilisation in southern Kyrgyzstan – which has a large ethnic Uzbek population - as a result of last month's Uzbek uprising and its suppression, and believe this could provoke a harsher religious policy. The uprising in Andijan was sparked in May by imminent verdicts in the trial of alleged members of a group known as "Akramia" (see F18News 16 June 2005 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=586). Sadykjan Makhmudov, head of the local human rights organisation Luchi Solomona, told Forum 18 in Osh on 2 June he believes "underground Akramia cells" exist in Osh.
Zakirov fears the aftermath of the Andijan uprising could destabilise the situation in southern Kyrgyzstan with the large numbers of Uzbek refugees joining the local ethnic Uzbek population. He told Forum 18 he believes a high proportion of members of local Islamic radical groups are ethnic Uzbeks. "The possibility that Islamic radicals fleeing from Uzbekistan may set up close contacts with radicals here can't be ruled out," he added. He thinks his region could become a focus of resistance for Uzbek anti-government forces and kidnap attempts by Uzbek forces. Such kidnappings are thought to have taken place in the past (see F18News 21 October 2003 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=166).
But despite fears of a possible tightening of religious policy, "so far there has been no noticeable significant changes in the authorities' policies", Sadykjan Kamaluddin, president of the International Islamic Centre and former mufti of Kyrgyzstan, told Forum 18 from Osh on 14 June. Kamaluddin also fears kidnappings carried out by Uzbekistan.
Human rights activist Makhmudov agrees that so far the Kyrgyz authorities have not changed their religious policy. But he told Forum 18 that police have arrested three Kyrgyz citizens who were in Andijan when the Uzbek uprising started and have called in others for questioning. "It seems to me that in fact these are devout Muslims who have little to do with politics," he commented.
For background information see Forum 18's Kyrgyzstan religious freedom survey at
A printer-friendly map of Kyrgyzstan is available at
23 May 2005
"Purges are already underway – religious organisations have immediately fallen under suspicion," Protestants in the capital Tashkent who preferred not to be named have told Forum 18 News Service, following the Uzbek government's bloody suppression of a popular uprising in the Fergana Valley. "Local authority and secret police officials are visiting and inspecting churches, and checking up on documentation," Forum 18 was told. Such visits have taken place throughout Uzbekistan, not just in the Fergana Valley. Jehovah's Witnesses say numerous cases against members caught up in coordinated raids in March are now in the courts. "Almost weekly there are new cases of fines or interrogations – this is merely business as usual," Forum 18 was told. The official reason given for the uprising – "Islamic radicalism" - is widely disbelieved, but as long as Islam and other faiths remain highly restricted, fundamentalist Islam is seen as a valid alternative to the current political structure. Some fear the Uzbek crackdown will complicate the stuation in neighbouring Kyrgyzstan.
13 May 2005
"The ban on the activity of unregistered religious associations and the draconian amendments to the administrative code significantly limit believers' rights," Aleksandr Klyushev, of the Association of Religious Organisations of Kazakhstan (AROK) told Forum 18 News Service after 12 May Majilis parliamentary approval of sweeping "national security" amendments to eleven laws. The parliamentary debate had been expected on 18 May, but was suddenly brought forward. Klyushev said to Forum 18 that "deputies discovered that the discussion of the draft would take place on 11 May only on the day of the session. I believe this was done deliberately to prevent deputies from preparing for the consideration of the draft and from submitting amendments." Communist party deputy Yerasyl Abylkasymov told Forum 18 that "in the time of Genghis Khan such ideological saboteurs were hung, drawn and quartered. Alas it is now unfortunately not possible to do this and so we have to defend ourselves by means of laws." Having been approved by the Majilis, the lower house of parliament, the amendments now go to the upper house, the Senate, for approval.
22 March 2005
On 25 February, only seven months after it gained registration as a public association, a court in the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek revoked the registration of the Falun Gong Centre in the country under pressure from the Chinese embassy, which claimed the spiritual movement "encroaches on human rights and overall poses a threat to society". Judge Jaukhar Baizulayeva, who heard the case, ruled that the group conducts "religious activity that is against public and state interests", though no evidence for this was presented in court. Falun Gong leader's in Kyrgyzstan, Marita Shaikhmetova, complained to Forum 18 News Service that the judge was "prejudiced" against the community before the hearing had even begun and was hostile throughout, shouting at Falun Gong witnesses. The judge declined to talk to Forum 18.