UZBEKISTAN: Protestants in north-west "illegal"
The last legal Protestant church in north-west Uzbekistan has been closed by the Karakalpakstan region's Justice Ministry, Forum 18 News Service has learnt. As all unregistered religious activity in Uzbekistan is illegal, the church cannot now legally operate. Klara Alasheva, first deputy Justice Minister, denied that her ministry's closure of the church was persecution of the Protestant minority. "We warned the church last year not to conduct missionary activity but they carried on regardless," she told Forum 18. Alasheva also denied that Uzbekistan's ban on missionary activity violated its international human rights commitments. "That's what you're claiming, but we're legal specialists," she told Forum 18. The authorities in north-west Uzbekistan have long conducted an anti-Christian campaign, but Protestants in the region are known to still be active. Catholic sources have denied a claim by Alasheva that there is a registered Catholic parish in Nukus.
The board of the Justice Ministry formally removed registration from the Emmanuel church on 4 May, both Alasheva and Protestant sources told Forum 18. The Nukus-based Pentecostal congregation is led by Pastor Nazim Nebiev. The decree, signed by Karakalpakstan's Justice Minister Davlatbei Holmuratov, justified its decision by the fact that church members had been fined administratively last September for missionary activity, that two female church members had conducted religious activity among fellow-students of Nukus University, that the church holds its services in premises registered for business purposes and that it held services also at two other premises in Nukus, which belong to the Full Gospel Pentecostal Church in the capital Tashkent.
Protestant sources pointed out to Forum 18 that no church members have been prosecuted for conducting religious activity at Nukus University.
"Our decision to close down the church was not immediate," Alasheva told Forum 18. "We warned them in writing last year about their missionary activity." She said a court in the town of Kungrad north-west of Nukus had handed down administrative fines on three church members last autumn for conducting such activity, which is illegal under Uzbek law in defiance of the country's international human rights commitments.
Alasheva rejected suggestions that Uzbekistan's ban on missionary activity violates international commitments. "That's what you're claiming, but we're legal specialists," she told Forum 18. "Everything has been done in accordance with the Constitution of Karakalpakstan, the Constitution of Uzbekistan and the country's laws."
Alasheva said it was right to punish the church as a whole because the missionaries had been sent out by the church. She said her ministry regarded the fact that those convicted last year had not appealed against their punishments and that the church has not so far challenged the removal of registration in court as proof of guilt.
Officials in Karakalpakstan have been engaged in a long-running campaign to crush Protestant and Jehovah's Witness activity. When a Protestant convert near Nukus was assaulted by fellow-villagers, the local public prosecutor's office was more interested in threatening local Protestants than punishing the guilty (see F18News 11 May 2005 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=557). Last year a number of Protestant students were expelled from their university (see F18News 13 December 2004 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=476), while other Protestants were interrogated, threatened and subjected to house searches (see F18News 30 April 2004 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=310). Jehovah's Witnesses too have been threatened and assaulted (see F18News 14 April 2004 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=299).
Both Alasheva and Khalifa Mirzaakhmedova, head of the Justice Ministry department that registers social and religious organisations, refused to tell Forum 18 how many religious communities in Karakalpakstan have registration. Alasheva said Muslim mosques are registered, as well as one Russian Orthodox church and one Catholic church in Nukus. She said one local Buddhist community has recently applied for registration. Alasheva implied, but refused to say exactly, that these are the only registered religious communities in Karakalpakstan.
Catholic sources in Uzbekistan have told Forum 18 that the church has five registered parishes in the country, none of them in Nukus or Karakalpakstan region. The Orthodox diocese has however confirmed that there is one Orthodox church registered in Nukus.
"Anyone who applies for registration in accordance with the law will get it," Alasheva went on to claim to Forum 18. "There are no obstacles. This includes Protestant churches."
Despite Alasheva's assurances, among the Protestant churches denied registration is the Nukus-based Peace church, led by Pastor Khym-Mun Kim. Stripped of registration in 2000 after officials complained it was conducting "illegal" religious work with children, the church has tried several times since then to regain its registration, so far in vain (see F18News 3 October 2003 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=152). Jehovah's Witnesses too have tried in vain to register communities in Karakalpakstan.
For an outline of the repression following the Andijan uprising, see http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=567
For a personal commentary by a Muslim scholar, advocating religious freedom for all faiths as the best antidote to Islamic religious extremism in Uzbekistan, see http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=338
For more background, see Forum 18's Uzbekistan religious freedom survey at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=546
A printer-friendly map of Uzbekistan is available at http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/index.html?Parent=asia&Rootmap=uzbeki
1 June 2005
As participants prepare for the forthcoming OSCE Conference on Anti-Semitism and on Other Forms of Intolerance, Forum 18 News Service notes that religious believers face intolerance in the form of attacks on their internationally agreed rights to religious freedom – mainly from their governments – in many countries of the 55-member OSCE. Despite binding OSCE commitments to religious freedom, in some OSCE member states religious communities are still being vilified, fined and imprisoned for peaceful exercise of their faith, religious services are being broken up, places of worship confiscated and even destroyed, religious literature censored and religious communities denied state registration and hence the domestic legal right to exist. Events in Uzbekistan offer one warning of what the persistent intolerance of religious freedom and other internationally agreed human rights can lead to.
23 May 2005
"Purges are already underway – religious organisations have immediately fallen under suspicion," Protestants in the capital Tashkent who preferred not to be named have told Forum 18 News Service, following the Uzbek government's bloody suppression of a popular uprising in the Fergana Valley. "Local authority and secret police officials are visiting and inspecting churches, and checking up on documentation," Forum 18 was told. Such visits have taken place throughout Uzbekistan, not just in the Fergana Valley. Jehovah's Witnesses say numerous cases against members caught up in coordinated raids in March are now in the courts. "Almost weekly there are new cases of fines or interrogations – this is merely business as usual," Forum 18 was told. The official reason given for the uprising – "Islamic radicalism" - is widely disbelieved, but as long as Islam and other faiths remain highly restricted, fundamentalist Islam is seen as a valid alternative to the current political structure. Some fear the Uzbek crackdown will complicate the stuation in neighbouring Kyrgyzstan.
13 May 2005
"The ban on the activity of unregistered religious associations and the draconian amendments to the administrative code significantly limit believers' rights," Aleksandr Klyushev, of the Association of Religious Organisations of Kazakhstan (AROK) told Forum 18 News Service after 12 May Majilis parliamentary approval of sweeping "national security" amendments to eleven laws. The parliamentary debate had been expected on 18 May, but was suddenly brought forward. Klyushev said to Forum 18 that "deputies discovered that the discussion of the draft would take place on 11 May only on the day of the session. I believe this was done deliberately to prevent deputies from preparing for the consideration of the draft and from submitting amendments." Communist party deputy Yerasyl Abylkasymov told Forum 18 that "in the time of Genghis Khan such ideological saboteurs were hung, drawn and quartered. Alas it is now unfortunately not possible to do this and so we have to defend ourselves by means of laws." Having been approved by the Majilis, the lower house of parliament, the amendments now go to the upper house, the Senate, for approval.