31 January 2018

KAZAKHSTAN: 284 administrative prosecutions in 2017 - list

By Felix Corley, Forum 18

Full list of 284 known administrative prosecutions in 2017 to punish exercising freedom of religion or belief. Of these, 263 ended up with punishments, including fines, a short-term jail term, deportations, worship bans, seizures and destruction of religious literature.

At least 284 administrative prosecutions are known to have been brought in 2017 to punish individuals, religious communities, charities and companies for their exercise of freedom of religion or belief. Of these, 263 ended up with punishments.

Punishments included fines, a short-term jail term, temporary or permanent bans on activity (including bans on meeting for worship), deportations, and seizures and destruction of religious literature, according to a review of the known 2017 cases compiled by Forum 18 (see full list below).

Muslims, Protestants (especially Council of Churches Baptists), Jehovah's Witnesses and commercial sellers were many of the targets of these prosecutions (for a full analysis of the cases, see F18News 30 January 2018 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2347).

Fines were mostly the equivalent of between three weeks' and six months' average wages for those in formal work (35 to 300 Monthly Financial Indicators, MFIs, 79,415 Tenge to 680,700 Tenge in 2017).

In nine cases, courts ordered seized religious literature to be destroyed. For the first time known to Forum 18, this included in 2017 a copy of the Koran.

Four foreign citizens were initially ordered deported. Cases against two of these were overturned on appeal.

Administrative prosecutions are known to have been brought in 2017 to punish:

- 88 individuals, charities and companies for meeting for worship, hosting such meetings or maintaining places for such meetings.

- 39 individuals and charities for offering religious literature to others for free.

- 58 individuals and companies for offering religious literature, icons or other items for sale.

- 4 individuals for trying to import religious literature.

- 1 individual for bringing religious literature from one Kazakh city to another.

- 1 community leader for storing religious literature which the authorities consider "extremist".

- 10 individuals for offering religious items for sale online.

- 12 individuals for posting religious materials online.

- 31 individuals for sharing faith with others.

- 22 Muslims for praying in mosques in ways that the state-controlled Muslim Board has banned, for example by using the word Amen (2017 is the first year such punishments have been imposed).

- 2 individuals for teaching their faith.

- 9 religious leaders for allowing children to be present or conducting religious rites against the wishes of one parent.

- 5 religious communities for "inadequate" security or security measures for their places of worship, for example not having enough video cameras.

- 2 individuals for failing to pay earlier fines to punish them for exercising the right to freedom of religion or belief.

More than 200 of these cases were heard in court, but more than 50 fines were summarily handed down by police.

Of the 268 administrative cases known to have been brought against individuals in 2017, 186 were against men and 82 against women. Women represented more than two-thirds of individuals prosecuted to punish offering religious literature and other items for sale in shops, and more than 90 per cent of those offering such material online. Women represented almost half the individuals prosecuted for sharing their faith with others.

Of the 284 known administrative prosecutions in 2017, 18 began as cases under Criminal Code Article 174 ("Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious discord, insult to the national honour and dignity or religious feelings of citizens, as well as propaganda of exclusivity, superiority or inferiority of citizens on grounds of their religion, class, national, generic or racial identity, committed publicly or with the use of mass media or information and communication networks, as well as by production or distribution of literature or other information media, promoting social, national, clan, racial, or religious discord"). The administrative cases were launched when prosecutors decided not to pursue the criminal cases.

Full list of known 2017 administrative prosecutions

The list of known 2017 administrative prosecutions below is based on court decisions and other information reaching Forum 18. It includes the date of initial decision by lower court/police, name of defendant, affiliation, court/police issuing decision, Administrative Code Article, reason for prosecution, outcome:

- Punishing unapproved meetings, rituals

Known administrative cases: 88
Known convictions: 81
200 MFI fines: 6
175 MFI fines: 1 (combined penalty)
140 MFI fines: 2
100 MFI fines: 11
70 MFI fines: 1
50 MFI fines: 46
35 MFI fines: 14
Permanent bans: 1
3-month bans: 18
Deportation orders: 2 (+ 2 overturned on appeal)

Protestants: 67 (including 55 Council of Churches Baptists)
Muslims: 13
Jehovah's Witnesses: 1
Russian Orthodox: 1 priest
Unknown religious affiliation: 1
Companies: 3
Businesspeople: 1
Charity: 1

Article 489, Part 9 punishes "Leadership of an unregistered, halted, or banned religious community or social organisation" with a fine of 100 MFIs.

Article 489, Part 10 punishes "Participation in an unregistered, halted, or banned religious community or social organisation" with a fine of 50 MFIs.

Article 490, Part 1, Point 1 punishes "violation of procedures established in law for conducting rites, ceremonies and meetings". Punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 MFIs, and for organisations a fine of 200 MFIs plus a three-month ban on activity.

Article 490, Part 8 punishes repeat violations of the Religion Law within one year, with fines on individuals of 200 MFIs.

1) 2017, Viktor Zigert, CC Baptist, Satpayev, Article 489, Part 9 (?), unregistered worship meeting, prosecutor closed police case

2) 6 January 2017, Habib Akkus, Muslim, Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, meal with friends, 100 MFI fine plus deportation (acquitted on appeal)

3) 18 January 2017, Gulsara Murtazina, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

4) February 2017, Vladimir Nelepin, CC Baptist, Oral, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, hosting unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

5) 5 February 2017, Sergei Krasnov, CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

6) 5 February 2017, Kenzhetai Baytinov, CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

7) 5 February 2017, Andrei Labinsky, CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

8) 5 February 2017, Serkali Kumargaliyev, CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

9) 5 February 2017, Dmitry Isayev, CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

10) 5 February 2017, Ivan Isayev, CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

11) 5 February 2017, Marat Omarov, visitor to CC Baptist, Oral Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

12) 6 February 2017, Yuri Agutin, Protestant, Lisakovsk City Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1; Article 490, Part 1, Point 3; Article 490, Part 3; and Article 490, Part 7 (2 cases merged into one), sharing faith, offering religious literature, unregistered worship meeting, allowed children in worship, 175 MFI fine total

13) 16 February 2017, Oleg Petrov, Protestant, Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

14) 26 February 2017, Aleksandr Yalfimov, CC Baptist, Taskala Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

15) 26 February 2017, Malik Sultangaliyev, CC Baptist, Taskala Police, Article 489, Part 10, participating in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

16) 6 March 2017, Vefil Pentecostal Church Belousovka, religious organisation, Glubokoe District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

17) 14 March 2017, Central Market, company, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 200 MFI fine plus closure of prayer room

18) 14 March 2017, Source of Life Protestant Church, religious organisation, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

19) 15 March 2017, Ayothi Daniel Gunaseelan, Protestant, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, foreign citizen preaching at unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine plus deportation (overturned on appeal)

20) 29 March 2017, Nikolai Popov, CC Baptist, Balkhash Specialised Administrative Court, Article 489, Part 9, unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

21) 5 April 2017, Yakov Fot, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

22) 6 April 2017, Eduard Malykhin, JW, Karabalyk District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

23) 16 April 2017, Petr Panafidin, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine (reduced on appeal to 70 MFI fine)

24) 16 April 2017, Vitali Ryzhkov, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

25) 16 April 2017, Vitali Relin, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

26) 18 April 2017, Ivan Yantsen, CC Baptist, Temirtau Police, Article 490, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

27) 21 April 2017, Saniya Shaimukhanova, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

28) 2 May 2017, Natalya Ishmuratova, commercial, Glubokoe District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, offered place for unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

29) 25 May 2017, Aleksandr Gorbunov, CC Baptist, Astrakhanka District Police, Article 490, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine (acquitted on appeal)

30) 29 May 2017, Petr Demchenko, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

31) 29 May 2017, Viktor Fot, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine (reduced to 35 MFI fine on appeal)

32) 29 May 2017, Stanislav Denisov, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

33) 29 May 2017, Aleksandr Strignatsky, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

34) 30 May 2017, Konstantin Nurtazin, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

35) c. 30 May 2017, Vladimir Sidorenko, CC Baptist visitor, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

36) c. 30 May 2017, Sergei Fot, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

37) 1 June 2017, Mangistaumunaigaz, company, Mangistau District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting (prayer room for workers in hostel, company then closed), 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

38) 1 June 2017, Vladimir Klochan, CC Baptist visitor, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

39) 2 June 2017, Oleg Getman, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine (reduced to 35 MFI fine on appeal)

40) 2 June 2017, Aleksandr Fot, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

41) 4 June 2017, Aleksei Tishko, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

42) 4 June 2017, Sergei Tyan, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

43) 4 June 2017, Vitali Relin, CC Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 35 MFI fine

44) 4 June 2017, Shukhrat Tolebayev, CC Baptist visitor, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 10, participation in unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine (reduced on appeal to 35 MFI fine)

45) 5 June 2017, Yakov Fot, Baptist, Taraz Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

46) 19 June 2017, Sauran Islamic Cultural Centre, charity, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, acquitted

47) 29 June 2017, Atyrau, charity, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

48) 29 June 2017, Rakhima Olzhabekova, affiliation unknown, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

49) July 2017, Petr Vorontsov, CC Baptist, Tekeli Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

50) 10 July 2017, Myungsoon Bae, Protestant, Uighur District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Part 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

51) 10 July 2017, Byung Jin Ahn, Protestant, Uighur District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Part 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

52) 10 July 2017, Samantha Sun Yu Leist, Protestant, Uighur District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Part 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

53) 10 July 2017, Sung Chun Park, Protestant, Uighur District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Part 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

54) 10 July 2017, Hae Taik Kim, Protestant, Uighur District Court, Article 490, Part 3, unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine plus deportation

55) 10 July 2017, Marat Tlegenov, Protestant, Uighur District Court, Article 490, Part 3, unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

56) 14 July 2017, Adil Ahmadov, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, unregistered worship meeting (Azerbaijani imam visiting relatives), 100 MFI fine plus deportation

57) 19 July 2017, Nurasyl Espolayev, Muslim, Karakie District Court, Article 490, Part 2, lecture in mosque, acquitted

58) 10 August 2017, Dosan Bekshoinov, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 8, unregistered worship meeting (second "offence" within year), 140 MFI fine

59) 18 August 2017, New Life Church, Protestant, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban on church

60) 21 August 2017, Vladimir Vorontsov, Russian Orthodox, Merke District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, acquitted

61) 2 November 2017, Taiyrkhan Tilegenov, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

62) Early November 2017, Aleksei Asetov, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 9, leading unregistered worship meeting, 100 MFI fine

63) Early November 2017, Tatyana Asetova, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

64) Early November 2017, Vasili Bunyak, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

65) Early November 2017, Sofya Bunyak, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

66) Early November 2017, Aleksandr Neiman, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

67) Early November 2017, Tatyana Neiman, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

68) Early November 2017, Vladimir Sergazin, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

69) Early November 2017, Tatyana Sergazina, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

70) Early November 2017, Olesya Kuvayeva, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

71) Early November 2017, Nadezhda Raseva, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

72) Early November 2017, Kamil Safarov, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

73) Early November 2017, Roman Andrienko, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

74) Early November 2017, Anastasiya Andrienko, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

75) Early November 2017, Dmitry Martynenko, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

76) Early November 2017, Liliya Proshina, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

77) Early November 2017, Andrei Proshin, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

78) Early November 2017, Lyubov Andrienko, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

79) Early November 2017, Tatyana Andrienko, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

80) Early November 2017, Vladimir Boinov, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

81) Early November 2017, Tatyana Savchuk, CC Baptist, Ekibastuz Police, Article 489, Part 10, unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine

82) 16 November 2017, Margarita Zeman, CC Baptist, Shu District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, hosting unregistered worship meeting, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban on church

83) 27 November 2017, Mega Plaza, company, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting, 140 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

84) 30 November 2017, Erzat Malgazhdarov, Muslim, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, unregistered worship meeting (namaz during Arabic lessons), 50 MFI fine

85) 30 November 2017, Aidar Babayev, Muslim, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting (namaz during Arabic lessons), 50 MFI fine

86) 30 November 2017, Maksat Rakhimbayev, Muslim, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 1, unregistered worship meeting (namaz during Arabic lessons), 35 MFI fine

87) 30 November 2017, Dias Baketayev, Muslim, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, unregistered worship meeting (namaz during Arabic lessons), 35 MFI fine

88) 30 November 2017, Erlan Rakhimzhanov, Muslim, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, unregistered worship meeting (namaz during Arabic lessons), 35 MFI fine

- Punishing offering free religious literature

Known administrative cases: 39
Known convictions: 34
Initial criminal cases (Article 174): 10
100 MFI fines: 1
50 MFI fines: 17
35 MFI fines: 16
3-month bans: 15
Literature destruction orders: 5

Protestants: 25 (including 19 Council of Churches Baptists)
Muslims: 9
Jehovah's Witnesses: 3
Unknown religious affiliation: 1
Charity: 1

Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 punishes: "Violating the requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use". The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 MFIs.

1) 2 February 2017, Mukhtar Shnaliyev, affiliation unknown, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

2) 2 February 2017, Aleksei Shchukin, Muslim, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit ("expert" analysis says 3 books "not recommended" for distribution), 50 MFI fine plus literature destruction

3) 3 February 2017, Nursultan Aisayev, Muslim, Turkestan City Court, Article 490, Part 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 100 MFI fine plus literature destruction

4) 6 February 2017, Serkali Kumargaliyev, CC Baptist, Oral Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine

5) 22 February 2017, Natalya Guleyenkova, Protestant, Lisakovsk City Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 2 and 3, Christmas gifts to children in home incl religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

6) 2 March 2017, Roman Pugachev, CC Baptist, Ualikhanov District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

7) 28 March 2017, Kairat Zhansengirov, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and items, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

8) 3 April 2017, Eldar Iziyev, Muslim, Enbekshikazakh District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine

9) 14 April 2017, Farrukh Ermetov, Muslim, Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus literature destruction

10) 14 April 2017, Edil Karatayev, Muslim, Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus literature destruction

11) 2 May 2017, Vladimir Klimov, Protestant, Kostanai Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine

12) 17 May 2017, Ruslan Sadvakasov, CC Baptist, Stepnogorsk City Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious literature, case dismissed (deadline for lodging expired)

13) 22 May 2017, Talgat Ibraimov, Muslim, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine

14) 22 May 2017, Teen Challenge Kazakhstan, organisation, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, acquitted

15) 29 May 2017, Valeri Zhigalov, CC Baptist, Stepnogorsk City Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious literature, guilty but acquitted because deadline for lodging case had expired

16) 27 June 2017, Mikhail Milkin, CC Baptist, Enbekshilder District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine

17) 27 June 2017, Aleksandr Ventsel, CC Baptist, Enbekshilder District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine

18) 29 June 2017, Nina Donskaya, Baptist, Zyryan District No. 2, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine

19) 25 July 2017, Andrei Blok, CC Baptist, Esil District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and discs, 50 MFI fine

20) 25 July 2017, Dmitry Isayev, CC Baptist, Enbekshilder District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and discs, 50 MFI fine

21) 25 July 2017, Yuri Safronov, CC Baptist, Enbekshilder District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and discs, 50 MFI fine

22) 26 July 2017, Vitali Yashchenko, CC Baptist, Enbekshilder District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and discs, 50 MFI fine

23) 2 August 2017, Adolf Fitts, CC Baptist, Taldykorgan Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

24) 3 August 2017, Stanislav Pavlov, CC Baptist, Taldykorgan Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

25) 3 August 2017, Serzhan Sheraliyev, Muslim, Taldykorgan Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

26) 15 August 2017, Adilbek Algashbayev, Muslim, Kazali District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 35 MFI plus literature destruction (incl Koran)

27) 15 August 2017, Bekzat Aimagambetov, JW, Zhezkazgan City Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious lit (heard speaking about at barbers), 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

28) 18 August 2017, Aleksandr Mikalauskas, CC Baptist, Talas District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, acquitted

29) 18 August 2017, Anatoly Karpov, CC Baptist, Talas District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, acquitted

30) 25 August 2017, Airat Latypov, CC Baptist, Sarkan District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

31) 25 August 2017, Igor Vavilkin, CC Baptist, Sarkan District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

32) 31 August 2017, Aleksei Pavlov, CC Baptist, Taldykorgan Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

33) 31 August 2017, Vladimir Chubarov, CC Baptist, Taldykorgan Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

34) 7 September 2017, Zaituna Geringer, Protestant, Zyryanov District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine

35) 20 September 2017, Inessa Pronicheva, JW, Temirtau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

36) 20 September 2017, Galymzhan Dauletbayev, JW, Temirtau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

37) 23 November 2017, Yuri Kiryushkin, CC Baptist, Zhumabayev District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

38) 27 November 2017, Aleksandr Novikov, Protestant, Sandyk District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine

39) 27 November 2017, Albert Gareyev, Protestant, Sandyk District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature, 35 MFI fine

- Punishing offering religious literature, items for sale

Known administrative cases: 58
Known convictions: 58
Initial criminal cases (Article 174): 1
200 MFI fines: 9
70 MFI fines : 1
50 MFI fines: 28
35 MFI fines: 20
3-month bans: 44
Permanent bans: 1
Literature destruction orders: 1
Literature retention: 2

Commercial traders: 54
Muslims: 2
Companies: 2

Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 punishes: "Violating the requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use". The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 MFIs.

1) 20 January 2017, Kadirkhan Dzharkimbayev, commercial seller, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine

2) 20 January 2017, Abdir Nadirbekov, commercial seller, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and audio recordings for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

3) 20 January 2017, Elmira Vergazova, commercial seller, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and items for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

4) 31 January 2017, Ermurat Temiraliyev, commercial seller, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

5) 1 February 2017, Zina Saurenbayeva, commercial seller, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

6) 1 February 2017, Svetlana Tashiyeva, commercial seller, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious icons for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

7) 8 February 2017, Zhasan Nasipbek, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

8) 9 February 2017, Almaty Kitap, company, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

9) 16 February 2017, Asel Tulyubayeva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious literature for sale (1 Koran), 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

10) 16 March 2017, Kaldybek Rakhmanov, commercial seller, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban plus literature to be handed to Religious Affairs Department

11) 17 March 2017, Meir Kadirov, commercial seller, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine

12) 17 March 2017, Dzhumagul Abdurakhmanova, commercial seller, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

13) 17 March 2017, Nazarkul Myktybayev, commercial seller, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban plus literature to be handed to Religious Affairs Department

14) 17 March 2017, Farida Isabekova, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

15) 4 May 2017, Tatyana Beisekeyeva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

16) 5 May 2017, Vera Yafyasova, commercial seller, Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine

17) 12 May 2017, Leila Mazmanova, commercial seller, Karasai Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

18) 16 May 2017, Attau Astana, company, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious literature for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

19) 18 May 2017, Vera Khametova, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

20) 23 May 2017, Kulgasyl Chayakhmetova, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

21) 23 May 2017, Kamarya Utebayeva, commercial seller, Oral Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious jewellery for sale, 35 MFI fine

22) 26 May 2017, Zhanna Utenova, commercial seller, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

23) 30 May 2017, Shynbolat Sayasatov, commercial seller, Inder District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine

24) 30 May 2017, Yelena Beloshapkina, commercial seller, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

25) 30 May 2017, Darya Trofimova, commercial seller, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and discs for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

26) 5 June 2017, Berik Bolegen, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

27) 5 June 2017, Bekzat Temirbekov, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine

28) 6 June 2017, Sailaukul Kindikbayeva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and items for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

29) 8 June 2017, Iriskul Allabergenov, commercial seller, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine plus literature destruction

30) 15 June 2017, Erdos Nurkhanov, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and items for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

31) 15 June 2017, Askarbai Beksultanov, commercial seller, Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

32) 16 June 2017, Nadezhda Berezutskaya, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering icons for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

33) 20 June 2017, Aniya Kuanbayeva, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

34) 20 June 2017, Shynar Zhagparova, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering book and icon for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

35) 21 June 2017, Zauresh Kasymova, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

36) 21 June 2017, Aiymgul Erkin, commercial seller, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering electronic religious literature for sale, 35 MFI fine

37) 21 June 2017, Alevtina Lapina, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering 3 icons for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

38) 23 June 2017, Karamat Zhiyanbayeva, commercial seller, Turkestan City Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious bk and items for sale, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

39) 23 June 2017, Salikha Serzhanova, commercial seller, Turkestan City Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious bks and items for sale, 35 MFI fine

40) 26 June 2017, Amina Davletyarova, commercial seller, Oral Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering items for sale, 35 MFI fine

41) 27 June 2017, Tatyana Lavrut, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

42) 20 July 2017, Natalya Samusenko, commercial seller, Tselinograd District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

43) 24 July 2017, Satti Astana 2011, company, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

44) 26 July 2017, Kulzhakhan Bektybayeva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

45) 1 August 2017, Sakysh Myrzakanova, Muslim, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit for sale, 35 MFI fine

46) 2 August 2017, Irina Zatyagova, commercial seller, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering crosses and icons for sale, 70 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

47) 17 August 2017, Daurenbek Zhalei, commercial seller, Temirtau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit and items for sale, 35 MFI fine

48) 29 August 2017, Manshuk Babatayeva, commercial seller, Aktau District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

49) 4 October 2017, Vladimir Komarov, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and icons for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

50) 12 October 2017, Yevgeny Akhmetov, Muslim, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit for sale on train, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

51) 12 October 2017, Vlada Kuzmina, commercial seller, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering 4 icons for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

52) 17 October 2017, Sailaukul Kindikbayeva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 8, offering religious literature and items for sale (second "offence" within year), 200 MFI fine plus ban on activity

53) 16 November 2017, Tatyana Tsareva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and icon for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

54) 29 November 2017, Yelena Boldyreva, commercial seller, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious calendars and jewellery for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

55) 29 November 2017, Meiramkul Rakhimbayeva, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

56) 6 December 2017, Gulzhamal Kasymova, commercial seller, Merki District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature and discs for sale, 35 MFI fine

57) 6 December 2017, Kairat Kazbekov, commercial seller, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale, 200 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

58) 12 December 2017, Erzhan Kykimbayev, commercial seller, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit for sale, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

- Punishing importing, transporting religious literature

Known administrative cases: 5
Known convictions: 5
Initial criminal cases (Article 174): 1
50 MFI fines: 3
35 MFI fines: 2
3-month bans: 3

Muslims: 4
Unknown religious affiliation: 1

Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 punishes: "Violating the requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use". The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 MFIs.

1) 29 May 2017, Muzaffar Dzhalalov, Muslim, Merki District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, tried to import religious book from Kyrgyzstan, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

2) 11 October 2017, Beibit Baigulakov, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, importing religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

3) 17 October 2017, Nurtas Mustafin, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, importing religious literature, 35 MFI fine

4) 20 December 2017, Nurtas Ensegenov, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, importing religious literature, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

5) 25 December 2017, Daulet Amanzholov, affiliation unknown, Zyryan District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), bringing religious materials from Oskemen (police detected by monitoring his VKontakte page), 35 MFI fine

- Punishing storing religious literature

Known administrative cases: 1
Known convictions: 0
Initial criminal cases (Article 174): 1

Jehovah's Witness: 1

Article 453, Part 4 punishes "Production, storage, import, transfer and distribution of literature containing .. social, national, clan, racial, or religious discord".

1) 17 October 2017, Dmitry Bukin (as head of Astana JW organisation), JW, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 453, Part 4 (initial Article 174 investigation), storing religious literature allegedly "extremist", acquitted

- Punishing offering religious literature, items for sale online

Known administrative cases: 10
Known convictions: 10
50 MFI fines: 4
35 MFI fines: 6
3-month bans: 6
1-day bans: 1
Literature retention: 4

Private sellers: 9
Commercial sellers: 1

Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 punishes: "Violating the requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use". The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 MFIs.

1) 24 January 2017, Alyona Dubrovskaya, private seller, Pavodar Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious literature for sale online, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

2) 14 June 2017, Diana Rusanova, private seller, Pavlodar Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit for sale online, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban plus seized books (including Bhagavad-Gita As It Is) to be handed to Regional Religious Affairs Department

3) 14 June 2017, Arman Kaukenov, private seller, Pavlodar Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit for sale online, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban plus seized books to be handed to Regional Religious Affairs Department

4) 19 June 2017, Karlygash Bayseitova, commercial seller, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering icon for sale online, 35 MFI fine

5) 14 July 2017, Nadezhda Ushakova, private seller, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering icon online, 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

6) 20 July 2017, Anna Zinovieva, private seller (age 74), Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious picture for sale online, 35 MFI fine

7) 25 October 2017, Tatyana Karpunina, private seller, Oskemen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, online book offering, 35 MFI fine

8) 1 November 2017, Alevtina Kunshikova, private seller, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, offering religious book for sale online, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban plus book to be left with Religious Affairs Department

9) 8 November 2017, Yekaterina Astapova, private seller, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering 1910 Bible for sale online, 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

10) 26 December 2017, Yelizaveta Mordan, 18-year-old private seller, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, offering religious lit (1 Koran) online, 35 MFI fine plus 1 day ban plus literature to be handed to Religious Affairs Department

- Punishing posting religious materials online

Known administrative cases: 12
Known convictions: 12
Initial criminal cases (Article 174): 4
100 MFI fines: 1
70 MFI fines: 2
50 MFI fines: 4
35 MFI fines: 5
3-month bans: 4
Disc destruction orders: 2

Muslims: 11
Unknown religious affiliation: 1

Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 punishes: "Violating the requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use". The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 MFIs.

Article 490, Part 3 punishes: "Carrying out missionary activity without state registration (or re-registration), as well as the use by missionaries of religious literature, information materials with religious content or religious items without a positive assessment from a religious studies expert analysis, and spreading the teachings of a religious group which is not registered in Kazakhstan". The punishment is a fine of 100 MFIs, with deportation if the individual is a foreign citizen.

1) 3 February 2017, Oktam Zavurbekov, affiliation unknown, Sairam District Court, Article 490, Part 3, posted religious talks online, 100 MFI fine

2) 27 March 2017, Ardabek Soldatbai, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, publishing article on religious themes online (shyn.kz), 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

3) 5 May 2017, Eldar Zhakayev, Muslim, Karaganda Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, posting religious materials online (Telegram), 50 MFI fine

4) 12 May 2017, Nurlan Dukenbayev, Muslim, Karaganda Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, posting religious materials online (Telegram), 70 MFI fine

5) 8 June 2017, Talgat Turlubayev, Muslim, Ekibastuz Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), posting religious materials online (WhatsApp), 35 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

6) 8 June 2017, Kanat Zhumanov, Muslim, Ekibastuz Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), posting religious materials online (WhatsApp), 35 MFI fine plus destruction of 3 discs (he deleted Whatsapp group)

7) 8 June 2017, Nariman Doshtayev, Muslim, Ekibastuz Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), posting religious materials online (WhatsApp), 35 MFI fine plus destruction of 3 discs

8) 19 July 2017, Erlan Musatayev, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, posting religious material online (related to Azatov case), 35 MFI fine

9) 24 August 2017, Nurken Kushekbayev, Muslim, Gabit Musrepov District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, posting religious materials online (WhatsApp), 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

10) 5 October 2017, Daryn Mubarov, Muslim, Karaganda Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, shared his faith online (Youtube), 70 MFI fine

11) 24 November 2017, Ali Aitkabylov, Muslim, Zyryan District Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), posted religious materials online (VKontakte), 35 MFI fine

12) 25 December 2017, Sergei Snitsarenko, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, posted religious messages online (Telegram), 50 MFI fine plus 3 month ban

- Punishing sharing faith

Known administrative cases: 31
Known convictions: 28
Initial criminal cases (Article 174): 1
200 MFI fines: 1
100 MFI fines: 22
70 MFI fines: 3
50 MFI fines: 1
35 MFI fines: 1
Literature destruction orders: 1
Literature retention order: 2

Jehovah's Witnesses: 19
Muslims: 9
Protestants: 3 (including 1 Council of Churches Baptist)

Article 490, Part 3 punishes: "Carrying out missionary activity without state registration (or re-registration), as well as the use by missionaries of religious literature, information materials with religious content or religious items without a positive assessment from a religious studies expert analysis, and spreading the teachings of a religious group which is not registered in Kazakhstan". The punishment is a fine of 100 MFIs, with deportation if the individual is a foreign citizen.

1) 6 February 2017, Zhamal Chyngysova, JW, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

2) 6 February 2017, Dina Tankebayeva, JW, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

3) 9 February 2017, Sayat Isabekov, Muslim, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, acquitted (children he spoke to on Islam were already Muslims)

4) 16 February 2017, Oleg Petrov, Protestant, Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

5) 22 February 2017, Bakytzhan Ayakeyev, Muslim, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

6) 22 February 2017, Bagdat Ibraimov, Muslim, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

7) 22 February 2017, Zhaiyk Kabetov, Muslim, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

8) 22 February 2017, Bauyrzhan Sarisunbayev, Muslim, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

9) 22 February 2017, Gabit Kabakbayev, Muslim, Medeu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, acquitted

10) 22 February 2017, Aslanbek Pariyev, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

11) 27 February 2017, Karlygash Zholomanova, JW, Satpayev City Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith with religious literature, 100 MFI fine plus book and magazine ordered held in case file

12) 2 March 2017, Batyr Zhanabekov, JW, Shymkent Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith with religious materials, 100 MFI fine

13) 9 March 2017, Fariza Iskakova, JW, Satpayev City Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine plus one disc retained in case file (book ordered returned)

14) 27 March 2017, Raya Zhagalbayeva, New Life Protestant, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

15) 4 April 2017, Eduard Malykhin, JW, Karabalyk District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 70 MFI fine

16) 5 April 2017, Lyudmila Brodnikova, JW, Semei Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 (initial Art 174 investigation), sharing faith with literature, 50 MFI fine plus literature destruction

17) 5 April 2017, Irina Malykhina, JW, Karabalyk District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, acquitted

18) 2 May 2017, Galina Karabut, JW, Kostanai Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 70 MFI fine

19) 3 May 2017, Irina Lazebnaya, JW, Karabalyk District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 70 MFI fine

20) 3 May 2017, Nurulla Abdullayev, Muslim, Sairam District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith with religious literature, 100 MFI fine

21) 11 May 2017, Sergei Dzyuba, JW, Taiynsha District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

22) 11 May 2017, Sergei Yastremsky, JW, Taiynsha District Court, Article 490, Part 8, sharing faith (second "offence" within year), 200 MFI fine

23) 17 May 2017, Zhaksybek Alpysbayev, JW, Baizak District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

24) 5 June 2017, Aleksei Mishanin, JW, Shymkent Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

25) 6 June 2017, Tatyana Sribnyak, Protestant, Arkalyk City Court, Article 490, Part 3 (initially also Article 490, Part 1, Point 2: acquitted), sharing faith (acquitted of offering charitable help), 35 MFI fine

26) 12 June 2017, Galina Pak, JW, Maktaaral District No. 2, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith incl use of video, 100 MFI fine

27) 27 July 2017, Svetlana Nuriyeva, JW, Beineu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

28) 4 September 2017, Marina Kolova, JW, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith ("non-traditional religion"), 100 MFI fine

29) 4 September 2017, Svetlana Iskakova, JW, Petropavl Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith ("non-traditional religion"), 100 MFI fine

30) 7 September 2017, Baidilda Abildayev, Muslim, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine (also punished for disrespecting the court)

31) 11 December 2017, Viktoriya Weber, JW, Beineu District Court, Article 490, Part 3, sharing faith, 100 MFI fine

- Punishing violating mosques' internal rules

Known administrative cases: 22
Known convictions: 20
200 MFI fines: 1
50 MFI fines: 15
35 MFI fines: 4
1-month bans: 1

Muslims: 22

Article 490, Part 2 punishes: "Impeding lawful religious activity as well as violation of the civil rights of physical persons on grounds of their religious views or insulting their feelings or profanation of items, buildings and places revered by followers of any religion, unless there are signs of criminally punishable actions". The punishment for individuals is 50 Monthly Financial Indicators (MFIs), and for legal entities 200 MFIs.

1) 2 February 2017, Adil Dzhetmekov, Muslim, Zhanaozen District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine (acquitted on appeal)

2) 8 February 2017, Murat Zhumakulov, Muslim, Zhilioi District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

3) 20 February 2017, Azat Dostanov, Muslim, Beineu District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

4) 21 February 2017, Toremurat Koishybayev, Muslim, Munaili District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

5) 23 February 2017, Marat Mukhanbetov, Muslim, Oral City Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 35 MFI fine

6) 27 February 2017, Esen Talasbai, Muslim, Munaili District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

7) 14 March 2017, Zharas Bayeshev, Muslim, Zhanaozen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

8) 14 March 2017, Ilyas Zhalimbet, Muslim, Zhanaozen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

9) 14 March 2017, Nurlan Nurdzhanov, Muslim, Zhanaozen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 35 MFI fine

10) 14 March 2017, Ulugbek Baitursunov, Muslim, Zhanaozen Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

11) 17 March 2017, Serik Karimov, Muslim, Kurmangazi District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 35 MFI fine

12) 4 May 2017, Nurlan Dauletov, Muslim, Makat District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, case dismissed (deadline for lodging expired)

13) 12 May 2017, Nazar Kozhabai, Muslim, Munaili District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

14) 12 May 2017, Sairan Tobyshbayev, Muslim, Zhilioi District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

15) 12 May 2017, Nurzhan Asylbekov, Muslim, Zhilioi District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

16) 17 May 2017, Kuantai Tuleushev, Muslim, Zhilioi District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

17) 17 May 2017, Ali Seyilkanov, Muslim, Zhilioi District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

18) 29 May 2017, Munal Azan, Muslim, Munaili District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

19) 19 June 2017, Murat Zhumakulov, Muslim, Zhilioi District Court, Article 490, Part 8, Amen in mosque, 200 MFI fine plus 1 month ban (second "offence" within one year)

20) 13 July 2017, Zhandos Zhumanbetov, Muslim, Inder District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 50 MFI fine

21) 20 September 2017, Meirbek Isembayev, Muslim, Makat District Court, Article 490, Part 2, Amen in mosque, 35 MFI fine

22) 25 September 2017, Maksumzhan Sadykbayev, Muslim, Urzhar District Court, Article 490, Part 2, not praying in mosque according to Muslim Board rules, 50 MFI fine

- Punishing religious teaching

Known administrative cases: 2
Known convictions: 2
100 MFI fines: 2

Muslims : 2

Article 490, Part 3 punishes: "Carrying out missionary activity without state registration (or re-registration), as well as the use by missionaries of religious literature, information materials with religious content or religious items without a positive assessment from a religious studies expert analysis, and spreading the teachings of a religious group which is not registered in Kazakhstan". The punishment is a fine of 100 MFIs, with deportation if the individual is a foreign citizen.

1) 22 February 2017, Bazarkhan Alimkhanuly, Muslim, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, religious teaching in charity office, 100 MFI fine

2) 23 February 2017, Shirazidin Temirkululy, Muslim, Atyrau Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 3, religious teaching in charity office, 100 MFI fine

- Punishing involvement of children

Known administrative cases: 9
Known convictions: 6
50 MFI fines: 4
35 MFI fines: 1
Combined fine: Agutin, see above

Jehovah's Witnesses: 4
Protestants: 4 (including 1 Seventh-day Adventist pastor)
Russian Orthodox: 1 priest

Article 490, Part 7 punishes leaders of registered religious organisations who fail to abide by the 2011 Religion Law's requirement "to take measures not to allow the involvement and/or participation of under age children in the activity of the religious association when one of the parents or their other legal representatives objects". Punishment is a fine of 50 MFIs plus deportation from the country.

1) 6 February 2017, Yuri Agutin, Protestant, Lisakovsk District Court, Article 490, Part 7, children present at worship (see above)

2) 13 June 2017, Sergei Rosheniya, JW, Shakhtinsk Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 7, children present at worship, 50 MFI fine

3) 27 July 2017, Aleksandr Zyryanov, Orthodox, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 7, priest baptising child (mother absent and only expressed objection afterwards), acquitted

4) 23 August 2017, Ildus Khairullin, JW, Balkhash Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 7 (2 initial cases merged into one), child present at worship, 50 MFI fine

5) 12 October 2017, Vyacheslav Poptsov, Baptist, Martuk District Court (transferred from Aktobe Specialised Administrative Court), Article 490, Part 7, children present at worship, case closed because time expired

6) 18 October 2017, Oleg Bondarenko, Seventh-day Adventist, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 7, child present at worship, acquitted

7) 16 November 2017, Mikhail Amanov, JW, Lisakovsk City Court, Article 490, Part 7, child present at worship, 35 MFI fine

8) 16 November 2017, Vitali Pak, Protestant, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 7, child present at worship, 50 MFI fine

9) 25 December 2017, Ruslan Bayanbayev, JW, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 490, Part 7, child present at worship, 50 MFI fine

- Punishing "inadequate" security measures

Known administrative cases: 5
Known convictions: 5
300 MFI fines: 1
200 MFI fines: 4
3-month bans: 1

Protestant churches: 3
Jehovah's Witness Administrative Centre: 2

Administrative Code Article 149 punishes: "Non-fulfilment and (or) inadequate fulfilment of duties on providing antiterrorist protection and observing the proper level of security of an object vulnerable to terrorism". Punishments for first "offences" under Part 1 are a fine for non-commercial organisations (including religious organisations) of 200 MFIs. Punishments for second "offences" under Part 2 for such organisations are a fine of 300 MFIs with a possible ban of up to three months.

1) 24 January 2017, Jehovah's Witness Regional Organisation, religious organisation, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 149, Part 1, inadequate security measures, 200 MFI fine

2) 12 June 2017, Christ the Saviour Presbyterian Church, religious organisation, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 149, Part 1, inadequate security measures, 200 MFI fine

3) 27 June 2017, Grace Presbyterian Church, religious organisation, Karaganda Specialised Administrative Court, Article 149, Part 1, inadequate security measures, 200 MFI fine

4) 29 June 2017, Jehovah's Witness Regional Organisation, religious organisation, Almaty Specialised Administrative Court, Article 149, Part 2, inadequate security measures, 300 MFI fine plus 3 month ban (second "offence" within one year, ban narrowed in scope on appeal)

5) 18 October 2017, Grace Presbyterian Church, religious organisation, Astana Specialised Administrative Court, Article 149, Part 1, failure to ensure security measures, 200 MFI fine

- Punishing failing to pay earlier fines

Known administrative cases: 2
Known convictions: 2
3-day jail terms: 1
10 MFI fines: 1

Council of Churches Baptists: 2

Article 669 punishes "Failure to fulfil a court decision" with a fine for individuals of 5 MFIs (10 MFIs until early 2018) or up to five days' jail.

1) 31 January 2017, Serkali Kumargaliyev, Baptist, Terekti District Court, Article 669, failure to pay earlier fines, 3 days' jail total

2) 1 March 2017, Nikolai Levin, CC Baptist, Sandyktau District Court, Article 669, failure to pay earlier fines, 10 MFI fine

(END)

Reports on freedom of thought, conscience and belief in Kazakhstan can be found at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?query=&religion=all&country=29.

For more background, see Forum 18's Kazakhstan religious freedom survey at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1939.

For a personal commentary from 2005 on how attacking religious freedom damages national security in Kazakhstan, see F18News http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=564.

A compilation of Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) freedom of religion or belief commitments can be found at http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=1351.

A printer-friendly map of Kazakhstan is available at http://nationalgeographic.org/education/mapping/outline-map/?map=Kazakhstan.

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